In this task I plan to research into the history and development of animation. It will extend my knowledge of the subject and will give indication to who’s efforts, if any have caused more of an impact on its development.
1824 – Peter Rogan presents “The Persistence of Vision” giving us the introduction of ‘frames a second’ and indications towards animation by showing how things move
1831 – brings up the ‘Phenakitstoscope’ an optical toy created by both Dr. Joseph Antoine Plateau and Dr. Simon Rittrer which would show an image in motion when looking through the slit of a rotation wheel. The motion from the image was nothing more than a reflection of images being spun at a steady speed. The wheel spins so fast that it makes all the images seem connected creating an idea into animation.
1872 – Mauybridge starts his photographic gathering of animals in motion bringing us more of a development to animating movement. Also bringing the invention of the shutter, a necessary development for all of film and animation.
1887 – Thomas Edison started his work towards motion picture
1889 – Thomas Edison invents the Kinetoscope encouraging people every where to explore a new art form
1906 – J. Stuart Blackton made the first animated film which he called “Humorous Phases of funny faces”. The film would show a drawn face on a blackboard as more faces were added by the artist stopping the camera and recording once something had been added; something we refer to now a days as stop motion
1908 – Francis Emile Cole produced a film with the use of a blackboard; simular to Blackton two years before
1910 – Emile Cohl creates the first paper animation “En Route”
1911 – “Little Nemo” the first drawn cartoon animation (in colour) made by Winsor McCay
1913 – J.R. Bray “Colonel Heeza Liar” cartoon style animation in black and white. Also Sidney Smith with “Old Doc Yak.”
1914 – Jon B Ray introduces some new animation techniques; created a methods of having a printed background with the fore ground animation. John R Bray also places a patent on some of his findings
1914 – Winsor McCay creates “Gertie The Dinosaur” :- A energetic cartoon which took over 10,000 drawings to create
1914 – Earl Hurd puts a patent on “cell animation” a technique to make the process of animation a lot faster where the animations run over a still background
1917 – The International Feature Syndicate brings new cartoons with the use of cel animation; “Krazy Kat”; “Bringing up Father” and “Silk Hat Harry”
1919 – Pat Sullivan with “Felix The Cat”
1923 – Walt and Roy Disney found Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio
1923 – Walt Disney extended Max Fleischer’s technique of combining live action with cartoon characters in the film “Alice’s Wonderland”.
1926 – The first feature-length animated film called “El Apostol” is created in Argentina.
1927 – Warner Brothers released “The Jazz Singer” which introduced combined sound and images.
1928 – Walt Disney created the first cartoon with synchronized sound called “Steam Boat Willy”.
1930 – The King of Jazz is produced by Universal. In it is a short animated sequence done by Walter Lantz. It is the first animation done with the two strip technicolor process
1934 – Urb Irwek creates a multi-plane camera. This camera is capable of filming several separate layers of cels giving the final frame a truly three dimensional look.
1943 – John and James Whitney produced “Five Abstract Film Exercises.”
1945 – Harry Smith produced animation by drawing directly onto film.
1957 – John Whitney used 17 Bodine motors, 8 Selsyns, 9 different gear units and 5 ball integrators to create analog computer graphics.
1961 – John Whitney used differential gear mechanisms to create film and television title sequences.
1963 – Ivan Sutherland and SKETCHPAD at MIT/Lincoln Labs
1964 – Ken Knowlton, working at Bell Laboratories, started developing computer techniques for producing animated movies.
1972 – University of Utah, Ed Catmull develops an animation scripting language and creates an animation of a smooth shaded hand. Ref: E. Catmull, “A System for Computer Generated Movies”, Proceedings of the ACM National Conference, 1972. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)
1972 – University of Utah, Fred Parke creates first computer generated facial animation. >Ref: F. Parke, “Computer Generated Animation of Faces”, Proceedings of the ACM National Conference, 1972. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)
1974 – National Research Council of Canada releases Hunger/La Faim directed by Peter Foldes and featuring Burtnyk and Wein interactive keyframing techniques. Ref: N. Burtnyk and M. Wein,“Interactive Skeleton Techniques for Enhancing Motion Dynamics in Key Frame Animation”, Communications of the ACM, 19(10), October 1976. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)
1982 – Tron, MAGI, movie with CG premise
1983 – Bill Reeves at Lucasfilm publishes techniques for modeling particle systems. “Demo” is Star Trek II: The Wrath of Kahn. The paper also promotes motion blur. Ref: W. Reeves, “Particle Systems — A Technique for Modeling a Class of Fuzzy Objects”, Computer Graphics, 17(3), July 1983. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)
1984 – The Last Starfighter, CG is used in place of models
1984 – Porter and Duff at Lucusfilm publish paper on digital compositing using an alpha channel. Ref: T. Porter and T. Duff, “Compositing Digital Images”, Computer Graphics, 18(3), July 1984. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)
1985 – Girard and Maciejewski at OSU publish a paper describing the use of inverse kinematics and dynamics for animation. Their techniques are used in the animation “Eurythmy.” Ref: M. Girard and A. A. Maciejewski, “Computational Modeling for the Computer Animation of Legged Figures”, Computer Graphics, 19(3), July 1985. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)
1985 – Ken Perlin at NYU publishes a paper on noise functions for textures. He later applied this technique to add realism to character animations. Ref: K. Perlin, “An Image Synthesizer”, Computer Graphics, 19(3), July 1985. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)
1987 – John Lasseter at Pixar publishes a paper describing traditional animation principles. “Demos” are Andre and Wally B and Luxo Jr. Ref: J. Lasseter, “Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to 3D Computer Animation”, Computer Graphics, 21(4), July 1987. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)
1987 – Craig Reynolds then at Symbolics (now at Dreamworks SKG) publishes a paper on self-organizing behavior for groups. “Demos” are Stanley and Stella and Batman Returns. Ref: C. W. Reynolds, “Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model”, Computer Graphics, 21(4), July 1987. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)
1988 – Willow uses morphing in live action film
1992 – Beier and Neely, at SGI and PDI respectively publish an algorithm where line correspondences guide morphing between 2D images. “Demo” is Michael Jackson videoBlack and White. Ref: T. Beier and S. Neely, “Feature-Based Image Metamorphosis”, Computer Graphics, 26(2), July 1992. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.) v
1993 – Chen and Williams at Apple publish a paper on view interpolation for 3D walkthroughs. Ref: S. E. Chen and L. Williams, “View Interpolation for Image Synthesis”, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1993. (In the SIGGRAPH 98 Seminal Graphics collection.)
1993 – Jurassic Park use of CG for realistic living creatures
1995 – Toy Story first full-length 3D CG feature film