Task one – (Links and Materials)

George Groves:

http://www.georgegroves.org.uk/

“I supervised the dubbing, scoring, production. I was jack of all trades running around keeping an eye on everybody”  –  {George Groves Oral History}

Finally somebody said “Let’s make an all-talking picture” and this was Lights of New York. That was the first 100% talkie, they talked all the way through it and very corny dialogue and very corny if you see it now, it’s just funny. But nevertheless it caused a tremendous sensation…You heard people talk in synchronism with the picture but the action was very static. Nobody could move around, not very much anyway.

“The greatest contribution to the film’s success”
– Al Jolson

“I look back on my association with Alfred Hitchcock as one of the great privileges of my tenure of office at Warner Bros.”  –  {George Groves Oral History }

by mid-1937 Warners had migrated from Western Electric variable density sound recordings to RCA variable area. The main advantage was in improvements to the volume range,

Carl Stalling:

He was a brilliant musician. But the quickest way for him to write a musical score was to simply look up some music that had the proper name. If there was a lady dressed in red, he’d always play “The Lady in Red“. If somebody went into a cave, he’d play “Fingal’s Cave“. If we were doing anything about eating, he’d do “A Cup of Coffee, A Sandwich, and You“. I had a bee one time, and my God, if he didn’t go and find a piece of music written in 1906 or something called “I’m a Busy Little Bumble Bee

Carl Stalling is the most famous unknown composer of the 20th century, almost solely based on his work composing musical scores for animated cartoons.

At Disney, Stalling invented the “tick” method, a timing device that allows animators to set the tempo of the cartoons, so that the musicians can play along before the cartoon is even drawn!

Ben Burtt:

an American sound designer who has worked on various films including: the Star Wars and Indiana Jones film series, Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978), E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982), and WALL-E (2008). He is also a film editor and directorscreenwriter, and voice actor.

Zoetrope Film:

American Zoetrope was founded in 1969 with the mission of finding creative, fast, and economic approaches to film. By constantly embracing new technology and innovatively applying it to movie production, American Zoetrope has built a rich history of pioneering unconventional filmmaking techniques.

One outcome was the Silverfish, an AirStream RV that provided audio support sets as well an environment for both creating and editing film.

American Zoetrope introduced the use of automated equipment and digital electronics to filmmaking.

http://www.zoetrope.com/zoe_films.cgi?page=technology

The Silverfish shook up the traditional organizational structure of film production by enabling pre-production, production, and post-production to occur simultaneously

Zoetrope also provided the foundation for the next step in filmmaking: electronic nonlinear editing. In 1989, Zoetrope defied industry standards by editing the Godfather, Part 3 using the Montage Picture Processor, an ancestor to today’s digital Avid® editing systems.

The collapse of American Zoetrope as an alternative to traditional Hollywood filmmaking substantially changed the direction of its founders, the results of which would redefine the movie industry and contribute to the blockbuster mentality that dominates current Hollywood cinema.

Coppola found a name for his new company. He would call it American Zoetrope. He felt the name reflected a new generation of American filmmakers influenced by European sensibilities.

“The essential objective of the company is to engage in the varied
fields of filmmaking, collaborating with the most gifted and youthful talent
using the most contemporary techniques and equipment possible.”

Skywalker Sound

Skywalker Sound is one of the largest, most versatile full-service audio post-production companies in the industry.

Skywalker Sound is the sound effects, sound editing, sound design, sound mixing and music recording division of George Lucas’ Lucas Digital motion picture group. Its main facilities are located in Lucas Valley, near Nicasio, California.

Motion Picture Editors Guild

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motion_Picture_Editors_Guild
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Alliance_of_Theatrical_Stage_Employees

https://www.editorsguild.com/EmpPostProdMajors12_13.cfm

USITT

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Institute_for_Theatre_Technology

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHVbS3AupwYSound Design Commission

Dolby

One of the features that set Dolby’s compander apart was that it treated only the quiet sounds that would be masked by tape noise. Dolby marketed the product to record companies.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolby

Dolby NR is the name given to a series of noise reduction systems developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analog magnetic tape recording. The first was Dolby A, a professional broadband noise reduction for recording studios in 1966, but the best-known is Dolby B (introduced 1968), a sliding band system for the consumer market, which helped make high fidelity practical on cassette tapes, and is common on stereo tape players and recorders to the present day. Of the noise reduction systems, Dolby A and Dolby SR were developed for professional use. Dolby BC, and, S were designed for the consumer market. Aside from Dolby HX, all the Dolby variants work by companding, or compressing thedynamic range of the sound during recording and expanding it during playback.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolby_Noise_Reduction

Sound History

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